E-ISSN 2146-8397 |
 

Original Research Open Access


Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of the extracts of Fagara zanthoxyloides on selected cariogenic and enteric bacterial isolates

Martins Ajibade Adefisoye, Kwashie AjibadeAko-Nai, Mary Adejumoke Bisi-Johnson.

Cited by (1)

Abstract
Background: Fagara zanthoxyloides belongs to the family Rutaceae. The stem and the root of the plant are both used as chewing stick in Nigeria particularly among the Yoruba ethnic group in the South-Western part of the country. This study determined the antimicrobial activity of the extracts from F. zanthoxyloides on selected cariogenic and enteric bacterial isolates.
Methods: Crude extracts were obtained by cold extraction method of the powdered stem in methanol-water mixture (MW) in ratio 3:2 and phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Filtrates obtained were concentrated in a rotary evaporator and lyophilized. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts, at a concentration of 25 mg/ml was tested against four bacterial isolates using agar well diffusion method. Phytochemical analysis of the plant extract for the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids and flavanoids was based on chemical examination.
Results and discussions: Extracts from methanol-water mixture showed some antimicrobial activity against Lactobacillus brevis (NCIMB 4617), L. plantarum (NCDO 1752) and Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extracts ranged between 1.57 and 12.5 mg/ml except in E. coli with value greater than 12.5.mg/ml. The phytochemical screening indicated that the extract tested positive for tannin, saponin, flavonoids and alkaloids. Results showed that F. zanthoxyloides would be valuable in the treatment of microbial diseases particularly those of the oral cavity. The considerable antibacterial activities exhibited by the extract of the plant thus justify the use as a teeth cleansing agent in the local setting. The problem of antibiotics resistance to synthetic drugs is also expected to be mitigated with the use of natural drugs.

Key words: Fagara zanthoxyloides; antibacterial; bacteria; chewing stick; extract.


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
Print this article Print this Article
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Export to
Export to
Related Records
 Articles by Martins Ajibade Adefisoye
Articles by Kwashie AjibadeAko-Nai
Articles by Mary Adejumoke Bisi-Johnson
on Google
on Google Scholar
Article Statistics
 Viewed: 6675
Downloaded: 1166
Cited: 1

REFERENCES
1. Darout IA, Albandar JM, Skaug N. Periodontal status of adult Sudanese habitual users of miswak chewing sticks or toothbrushes. Acta OdontolScand.1989; 58(1): 25-30. [DOI via Crossref]   
2. Kassu A, Dagne E, Abate D, Castro A, Van Wyk BE. Ethnomedical aspects of the commonly used toothbrush sticks in Ethiopia. East Afr Med J. 1999. 76(11):651-653.
3. Cai L, Wei GX, van der Bijl P, Wu CD. Namibian chewing stick, Diospyroslycioides, contains antibacterial compounds against oral pathogens. J Agric. Food Chem. 2000; 48:909-914. [DOI via Crossref]   
4. vanPalentsteinHelderman W, Munck L, Mushendwa S, Mrema FG. Cleaning effectiveness of chewing sticks among Tanzanian school children. J. Clin. Periodontology. 1992; 19:460-463.
5. Agramian RA, Narendran S, Khavari AM. Oral health status, knowledge, and practices in an Amish population. J Pub. Health Dentistry. 1988. 48:147-151.
6. Hebbar SS, Harsh VH, Shripathi V, Hegde GR. Ethnomedicine of Dharwad district in Karnataka, India--plants used in oral health care. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004; 94:261-266. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
7. Almas K. The antimicrobial effects of seven different types of Asian chewing sticks. Odonto-StomatologieTropicale. 2001; 96:17–20.
8. El-Said F, Fadulu SO, Kuye JO, Sofowora A. Native Cures in Nigeria; Part II: The antimicrobial properties of the buffered extracts of chewing sticks. Lloydia1971; 34. 172-175.
9. Lewis ME. Plants and Dental Health. J Preventive Dentistry. 1990; 6: 75-78.
10. Aderinokun GA, Lawoyin JO, Onyeaso CO. Effect of two common Nigerian chewing sticks on gingival health and oral hygiene. Odonto-stomatologie Trop. 1999; 22:13-18.
11. Danielsen B, Baelum V, Manji F, Fejerskov O. Chewing sticks, toothpaste, and plaque removal. ActaOdontologica Scand. 1989; 47: 121-125. [DOI via Crossref]   
12. Ndukwe KC, Okeke IN, Lamikanra A, Adesina SK, Aboderin O. Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous Extracts of Selected Chewing Sticks. J. Contemp. Dent. Pract. 2005; (6)3:086-094.
13. Isawumi MA. Nigerian chewing sticks. Nigerian Field. 1978; 43(2):50-58.
14. Almas K, Al-Lafi TR. The natural toothbrush. World Health Forum. 1995; 16:206-210.
15. Wu CD, Darout IA, Skaug N. Chewing sticks: timeless natural toothbrushes for oral cleansing. J Periodontal Res. 2001; 36: 275–282.
16. Ogwal-Okeng JW, Obua C, Anokbonggo WW. Acute toxicity effects of the methanolic extract of Fagarazanthoxyloides (Lam.) root-bark. Afr. Health Sc. 2003; 3:124–126.
17. Kassim OO, Loyevsky M, Elliott B, Geall A, Amonoo H, Gordeuk VR. Effects of Root Extracts of Fagarazanthoxyloideson the in vitro growth and stage distribution of Plasmodium falciparum. Antimicrobial Agents Chemother. 2005; 49 (1):264–268.
18. Watt JM, Breyer-Brandiwijk MG. Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. 2nd Edition. E and S Livingstone, London. 1962.
19. Anokbonggo WW, Odoi-Adome R, Oluju PM. Traditional methods of diarrhoeal management in Uganda. Bull World Health Org. 1990; 68: 359-363
20. Sofowora EA, Isaacs WA. Reversal of sickling and crenation in erythrocytes by the root extract of Fagarazanthoxyloides. Lloydia 1971; 34:383–385.
21. Sofowora EA. Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. Spectrum Books Limited, Ibadan, Nigeria. 1993. p. 159-176; 179-189; 195-238.
22. Messmer WM, Tin-Wa M, Fong HHS, Bevelle C, Farnsworth NR, Abraham DJ, Trojanek J. Fagaronine, a new tumor inhibitor isolated from FagarazanthoxyloidesLam. (Rutaceae). J Pharm Sci.1998; 61:1858–1859.
23. Olasupo NA, Moro DD, Smith SI. Effect Of Some Indigenous Nigerian Chewing Sticks On Oral Bacterial Flora. Nigerian Med J. 2003; 44(3): 60-63.
24. vanVuuren SF, Viljoen AM. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of toothbrush sticks used in Ethiopia. South Afr. J. Botany. 2006; 72: 646–648.
25. Bisi-Johnson MA, Kolawole DO, Shittu AO. Epidemiological analysis of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureusin Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Pakistani J Biol Sci. 2005; 8(7):1016-1020. [DOI via Crossref]   
26. Lafl TA, Ababneh H. The effect of the extract of the Miswaki (chewing sticks) used in Jordan and the Middle East on oral bacteria. Int. Dental J. 1995; 45: 218–222.
27. Akinpelu DA, Adegboye MF, Adeloye OA, Okoh Al. Biocidal activities of partially purified fractions from methanolic extract of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds on bacterial isolates. Biological Res. 2008;41:277-287.
28. Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods – A Guide to Modern Technique of Plant analysis. 3rd ed. Chapman and Hall,London; New York. 1998. p. 302.
29. Trease GE, Evans WC. A Text Book of Pharmacognosy, 14th Edition, Balliere, Tindall, London. 1997. p. 13–53.
30. Fabrey W, Okemo PO, Ansorg R. Antibacterial activity of East African medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998; 60: 79–84.
31. Taiwo O, Xu HX, Lee SF. Antibacterial activities of extracts from Nigerian chewing sticks. Phytotherapia. 1999; 13(8): 675 –679.
32. Okeke MI, Iroegbu CU, Eze EN, Okoli AS, Esimone CO. Evaluation of extracts of the root of Landolphiaowerriencefor antibacterial activity. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 78: 119–127.
33. Alam MA, Sarder M, Awal MA, Sikder MMH, Daulla KA. Antibacterial activity of the crude ethanolic extract of Xylocarpusgranatumstem barks. Bangladesh J. Vet Med. 2006; 4 (1): 69–72.
34. Elujoba AA, Odeleye OM, Ogunyemi CM. Traditional medicine development for medical and dental primary health care dekivery system in Africa. Afr. J. Trad. Comp. Med. 2005; 2 (1):46- 61.
35. Prado S, Michel S, Tillequin F, Koch M, Pffeiffer B, Pierre A, Leonce S, Colson P, Baldeyrou B, Lansiaux A, Bailly C. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of benzo [c][1,7] and [1,8]phenanthrolines analogues of nitidine and fagaronine. Bioorganic Med. Chem. 2004; 12:3943–3953.
36. Ulrichova J, Dvorak Z, Vicar J, Lata J, Smrzova J, Sedo A, Simanek V. Cytotoxicity of natural compounds in hepatocyte cell culture models. The case of quaternary benzo [c]phenanthridine alkaloids. Toxicol Let. 2001; 125:125–132.
37. Takanishi T, Suzuki M, Saiomoto A, Kabasawa T. Structuralconsiderations of NK109, an antitumor benzo [c]phenanthridine alkaloid. J Nat Product (Lloydia). 1999. 62:864–867.

This Article Cited By the following articles

Chemical Diversity and Antimicrobial Activity of Volatile Compounds fromZanthoxylum zanthoxyloidesLam. according to Compound Classes, Plant Organs and Senegalese Sample Locations
Chem. Biodiversity 2017; 14(1): e1600125.

1
 

How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Adefisoye MA, AjibadeAko-Nai K, Adejumoke Bisi-Johnson M. Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of the extracts of Fagara zanthoxyloides on selected cariogenic and enteric bacterial isolates. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(1): 1-6. doi:10.5455/jice.55-1333123486



Web Style

Adefisoye MA, AjibadeAko-Nai K, Adejumoke Bisi-Johnson M. Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of the extracts of Fagara zanthoxyloides on selected cariogenic and enteric bacterial isolates. www.scopemed.org/?mno=18188 [Access: November 18, 2017]. doi:10.5455/jice.55-1333123486



AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Adefisoye MA, AjibadeAko-Nai K, Adejumoke Bisi-Johnson M. Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of the extracts of Fagara zanthoxyloides on selected cariogenic and enteric bacterial isolates. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(1): 1-6. doi:10.5455/jice.55-1333123486



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Adefisoye MA, AjibadeAko-Nai K, Adejumoke Bisi-Johnson M. Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of the extracts of Fagara zanthoxyloides on selected cariogenic and enteric bacterial isolates. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. (2012), [cited November 18, 2017]; 1(1): 1-6. doi:10.5455/jice.55-1333123486



Harvard Style

Adefisoye, M. A., AjibadeAko-Nai, K. & Adejumoke Bisi-Johnson, M. (2012) Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of the extracts of Fagara zanthoxyloides on selected cariogenic and enteric bacterial isolates. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol, 1 (1), 1-6. doi:10.5455/jice.55-1333123486



Turabian Style

Adefisoye, Martins Ajibade, Kwashie AjibadeAko-Nai, and Mary Adejumoke Bisi-Johnson. 2012. Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of the extracts of Fagara zanthoxyloides on selected cariogenic and enteric bacterial isolates. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology, 1 (1), 1-6. doi:10.5455/jice.55-1333123486



Chicago Style

Adefisoye, Martins Ajibade, Kwashie AjibadeAko-Nai, and Mary Adejumoke Bisi-Johnson. "Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of the extracts of Fagara zanthoxyloides on selected cariogenic and enteric bacterial isolates." Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology 1 (2012), 1-6. doi:10.5455/jice.55-1333123486



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Adefisoye, Martins Ajibade, Kwashie AjibadeAko-Nai, and Mary Adejumoke Bisi-Johnson. "Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of the extracts of Fagara zanthoxyloides on selected cariogenic and enteric bacterial isolates." Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology 1.1 (2012), 1-6. Print. doi:10.5455/jice.55-1333123486



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Adefisoye, M. A., AjibadeAko-Nai, K. & Adejumoke Bisi-Johnson, M. (2012) Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of the extracts of Fagara zanthoxyloides on selected cariogenic and enteric bacterial isolates. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology, 1 (1), 1-6. doi:10.5455/jice.55-1333123486





Most Viewed Articles
  • Role of Cyperus rotundus oil in decreasing hair growth
    GHADA FAROUK ABD EL-KAREAM
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(2): 111-118
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20120626100304

  • Ethno-dentistry: popular medicinal plants used for dental diseases in India
    Amit Bhardwaj, Shalu Verma Bhardwaj
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(1): 62-65
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20120322035152

  • Studies with Myrtus communis L.: Anticancer Properties
    Recai Ogur
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2014; 3(4): 135-137
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20140803044831

  • Total phenolic, flavonoids and tannin contents in different extracts of Artemisia absinthium
    Rajeev Singh, Pawan Kumar Verma, Gagandeep Singh
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(2): 101-104
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20120525014326

  • Antimicrobial and phytochemical evaluation of the leaf, stem bark and root extracts of Cyathula prostrata (L) Blume against some human pathogens
    Gideon Ikechukwu Ogu, Williams Omotola Tanimowo, Perpetua Ugonna Nwachukwu, Bright Esegbuyota Igere
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(1): 35-43
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20120407085952

  • Herbal Antibacterials: A Review
    Chirag Modi, Shailesh Mody, Hitesh Patel, Ghanshyam Dudhatra, Avinash Kumar, Madhavi Awale
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(1): 52-61
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20120207113423

  • Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Dichrocepala integrifolia (L.f) O. kuntze
    Tesfaye Mohammed, Chalachew Teshale
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(1): 30-34
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20120401054654

  • Medicinal plants with potential anti-arthritic activity:
    Manjusha Choudhary, Vipin Kumar, Hitesh Malhotra, Surender Singh
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2015; 4(2): 147-179
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20150313021918

  • Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of the extracts of Fagara zanthoxyloides on selected cariogenic and enteric bacterial isolates
    Martins Ajibade Adefisoye, Kwashie AjibadeAko-Nai, Mary Adejumoke Bisi-Johnson
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(1): 1-6
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.55-1333123486

  • Effect of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) on serum glucose level and various protein parameters in acetaminophen intoxicated rabbits
    Kanwal Zahra, Muhammad Imran Sohail, Muhammad Anwar Malik
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(1): 7-12
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20120403013109

  • Most Downloaded
  • Studies with Myrtus communis L.: Anticancer Properties
    Recai Ogur
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2014; 3(4): 135-137
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20140803044831

  • Total phenolic, flavonoids and tannin contents in different extracts of Artemisia absinthium
    Rajeev Singh, Pawan Kumar Verma, Gagandeep Singh
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(2): 101-104
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20120525014326

  • Herbal Antibacterials: A Review
    Chirag Modi, Shailesh Mody, Hitesh Patel, Ghanshyam Dudhatra, Avinash Kumar, Madhavi Awale
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(1): 52-61
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20120207113423

  • Ethno-dentistry: popular medicinal plants used for dental diseases in India
    Amit Bhardwaj, Shalu Verma Bhardwaj
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(1): 62-65
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20120322035152

  • Antimicrobial and phytochemical evaluation of the leaf, stem bark and root extracts of Cyathula prostrata (L) Blume against some human pathogens
    Gideon Ikechukwu Ogu, Williams Omotola Tanimowo, Perpetua Ugonna Nwachukwu, Bright Esegbuyota Igere
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(1): 35-43
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20120407085952

  • Role of Cyperus rotundus oil in decreasing hair growth
    GHADA FAROUK ABD EL-KAREAM
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(2): 111-118
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20120626100304

  • A review on ethnopharmacological potential of Aloe vera L.
    Md. Shamim Hossain, A.N.M Mamun-Or-Rashid, Nayeem Md. Towfique, Monokesh Kumer Sen
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2013; 2(2): 113-120
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20130612035300

  • Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Dichrocepala integrifolia (L.f) O. kuntze
    Tesfaye Mohammed, Chalachew Teshale
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(1): 30-34
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20120401054654

  • Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of the extracts of Fagara zanthoxyloides on selected cariogenic and enteric bacterial isolates
    Martins Ajibade Adefisoye, Kwashie AjibadeAko-Nai, Mary Adejumoke Bisi-Johnson
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(1): 1-6
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.55-1333123486

  • Use of Aqueous Extract of Corn Silk in the Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection
    Ahmed Salih Sahib, Imad Hashim Mohammed, Saba Jasim Hamdan
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(2): 93-96
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20120525123150

  • Most Cited Articles
  • Total phenolic, flavonoids and tannin contents in different extracts of Artemisia absinthium
    Rajeev Singh, Pawan Kumar Verma, Gagandeep Singh
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(2): 101-104
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20120525014326
    Cited : 27 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Antimicrobial and phytochemical evaluation of the leaf, stem bark and root extracts of Cyathula prostrata (L) Blume against some human pathogens
    Gideon Ikechukwu Ogu, Williams Omotola Tanimowo, Perpetua Ugonna Nwachukwu, Bright Esegbuyota Igere
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(1): 35-43
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20120407085952
    Cited : 11 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Some pharmacological effects of cinnamon and ginger herbs in obese diabetic rats
    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby, Hamed Yahya Saifan
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2014; 3(4): 144-149
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20140818050741
    Cited : 9 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory and Antihyperlipidemic Activities of Commiphora molmol Extract (Myrrh)
    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby, Ashraf Abd-Elkhalik Hammouda
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2014; 3(2): 56-62
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20140130015014
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Guava leaves polyphenolics-rich extract inhibits vital enzymes implicated in gout and hypertension in vitro
    Emmanuel Anyachukwu Irondi, Samson Olalekan Agboola, Ganiyu Oboh, Aline Augusti Boligon, Margareth Linde Athayde, Francis O. Shode
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2016; 5(2): 122-130
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20160321115402
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Potential antimalarials from African natural products: a review
    Bashir Lawal, Oluwatosin Kudirat Shittu, Adamu Yusuf Kabiru, Ali Audu Jigam, Maimuna Bello Umar, Eustace Bonghan Berinyuy, Blessing Uchenna Alozieuwa
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2015; 4(4): 318-343
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20150928102856
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Study of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of certain Iranian medicinal plants
    Fariba Sharififar, Payam Khazaeli, Narguess Alli, Elham Talebian, Raheleh Zarehshahi, Shivasadat Amiri
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(1): 19-24
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20120227104636
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Dichrocepala integrifolia (L.f) O. kuntze
    Tesfaye Mohammed, Chalachew Teshale
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(1): 30-34
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20120401054654
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Herbal medicine use among Turkish patients with chronic diseases
    Münevver Tulunay, Cenk Aypak, Hülya Yıkılkan, Süleyman Görpelioğlu
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2015; 4(3): 217-220
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20150623090040
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • α-Glucosidase and α -amylase inhibitory activities of Mukia maderaspatana (L) Roem
    Vadivelan Ramachandran
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(2): 97-100
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jice.20120616023239
    Cited : 4 times [Click to see citing articles]